Canadian immigrant earnings have been in decline for more than two decades. In 1980, employed newcomers earned 85 cents for each dollar received by Canadian-born workers. By 2005, that ratio had dropped to 63 cents for immigrant men and 56 cents for immigrant women.
These income gaps between immigrants and the Canadian-born persist, even though immigrants on average have higher levels of university educational attainment than the native-born.
Income instability is highest among those immigrants most recently arrived in Canada, but improves during the next two or three years as immigrants get settled in their new country.
For many immigrants, income is important not just to themselves and their families in Canada, but to their families and friends in their countries of origin. Roughly four in ten immigrants send money to family and/or friends at least once during their first four years in the country.